« Technology and international specialisation in Tourism. » CHARNNUWONG-SIHABUTR Chaturaporn

Thèse de doctorat d’Economie Sociale soutenue le lundi 4 juin 2012 sous la direction de François VELLAS

Financement : Khon Kaen University, THAILANDE

Abstract : This research examines the importance of technological factors in international tourism specialisation. The test application consists in finding tourism data related to technology, as well as in synthesising the correlation between tourism and technological factors which appear in domestic tourism expenditures, visitor exports, tourism investment, and expenditures on research and development (R&D) in order to compare their proportions between 2000 and 2010 and analysed the information by country group classification (Advanced countries, Developing countries, and Least Developed countries). The results show that tourism investment and R&D are significant factors in enhancing the tourism receipts of a country. This interpretation relates more precisely to Vernon’s “Product Life Cycle” theory which has proven to be a highly demonstrative tool as to the advantages of level technology in terms of added value in product quality and product development. The theory of Demand of Linder is also concerned in order to enhance each other between domestic and international tourism specialisation. It was found that most countries in the advanced group display a solid technological sector and an innovating economy as well as the data on R&D expenditures are mainly allocated in advanced country groups; this fact also influences the quality of tourism development in the long term. In developing countries, the domestic expenditures have shown stronger than visitor exports in countries with large population. The high population in the country reflects the size of its domestic market. In contrast, the proportion of visitor export is higher than domestic expenditures in the tourism destination countries; these country groups attract international tourists. The potential of expenditures by local populations in LDC countries is also weak, it obviously affects to the ratio of both domestic and international expenditures. The theories of Heckscher&Ohlin, Comparative advantage, and/or Absolute Advantage can be considered for LDC countries, they should take advantage of being tourist destination countries by applying the technology concerned to maintain the destination. Not only would this allocate physical capital but it would also enable them to invest in human resources (education, training, knowhow, and knowledge).

Keywords :
Technological factors, international tourism specialisation, tourism expenditures, tourism investment
mise à jour 02/04/2012